Those reforms have been criticized and opposed by a majority of Islamic Ulema and their followers, who regard them as violations of Islamic law and commandments as codified in classical Islamic legal texts as well as thinly veiled attempts to find an Islamic justification for an essentially Western approach to issues of interpersonal relations (Haeri 1993; Esposito 1982). Those obstacles will continue until the rigid attitudes of the Ulema change or lose significance for the general body of Muslims as a result of the decline of their religious authority. The Sociology of Islam provides an accessible introduction to this emerging field of inquiry, teaching and debate. New York: Oxford University Press. The empire of Charlemagne, a northern Germanic empire inconceivable in any previous century, marked the beginning of the Middle Ages. New York: Columbia University Press. As empirical and comparative study of Muslim societies develops, it will provide more opportunities to test and refine some of the existing theoretical propositions as well as develop new ones (see Arjomand 1988; Fischer 1980; Beyer 1994; Irfani 1983). The Sociology of Islam provides an accessible introduction to this emerging field of inquiry, teaching and debate. The new enemies are ephemeral global conspiracies. Wolf, Eric R. 1951 "The Social Organization of Mecca and the Origins of Islam." Fischer, Michael 1980 Iran: From Religious Dispute to Revolution. Arkoun, M. (1984) Pour une critique de la raison islamique (For a Criticism of Islamic Reason). Patterns of Distribution of Dominant Religious Tradition. Tamney, Joseph 1980 "Modernization and Religious Purification: Islam in Indonesia." Societies are not static. Pirenne places this specificity of Islam in opposition with the conquest of the Germans who, on the contrary, integrated and embraced the linguistic, cultural, and religious patterns of the people they conquered and who converted therefore to Christianity. Sources for the contention were founded on issues of Arabic grammar. (1988, p. 2), Among both groups, many different political movements and attitudes can be found. One strand of scholarship has focused on the analysis of various factors in the origins and early development of Islam. Strong social and cultural traditions evolved that placed serious obstacles in the way of women seeking to succeed in public roles. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 7(4): 329–356. Islam arose as a moderating religious-ethical. London: Sage. The combination of tribal solidarity and a puritanical scripturalistic urban religion is overwhelming. The Sociology of Islam provides an accessible introduction to this emerging field of inquiry, teaching and debate. The Prophet Muhammad embodies two roles in Islam. —— 1999b "Faithlines: Social Structure and Religiosity in Muslim Societies." L’Homme 102(27), Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales, Paris. 25:230–243. Social phenomena seem to obey laws that while not as absolute as those governing natural phenomena, are sufficiently constant to cause social events to follow regular, well-defined patterns and sequences. (2004) The Modern Middle East. Lapidus, I. M. (1988) A History of Islamic Societies. Gellner, E. (1981) Muslim Society. Journal of Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs 12(2):285–306. Each of them extends over a wide area of the Muslim world. Ideological parallels to Christianity can be found, but they operate in a contrasted institutional melieu" (1983, p. 6). Comparative Studies in Society and History 36(3): 463–487. Under modern conditions, the pattern of interaction between the two religious traditions has been transformed. It should be remembered at this point that this thesis is not intended to be a comprehensive research into the entire field of the sociology of Islam. A multidisciplinary approach to Islam in the social sciences gives an account of the present complexities and of the phenomena still in progress within Muslim societies. New York: Jewish Institute. Finally, it located the center of the state in urban settlements, surrounding the town with a set of religious symbols that served functionally to increase its prestige and role. In general, the reforms are having a positive effect, although obstacles still exist. Sociology Of Islam The sociology of Islam primarily refers to the empirical study of Muslim societies. The purpose of this account is to illustrate that Islam occupies an important place in theoretical discourse on modern sociology. Essai d’epistemo logie (Islam and History: Essay of Epistemology). —— 1999c. While Pirenne's thesis attempts to link the rise and development of Islam to the rise of the modern West, paradoxically, equally influential hypothesis postulates instead a "clash of civilizations." A. Globalization tends to heighten civilizational identity, and as a result, civilizational differences are difficult to reconcile and override political and economic factors. (Eds.) Besides its attention to some of the forgotten groups in the social world, sociology is distinctive for its focus on relationships, interactions, social processes, and contexts. Notwithstanding strong resistance from Islamicists in several countries, the new nationalist leaders were able to overcome centuries of resistance and introduce modest changes in family and marriage laws. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Actes du Colloque tenu au College de France a Paris le 4 et 5 fevrier 1977. Only those with superior social cohesion succeed in becoming rulers, but a civilization (state-society) consists of tribes and cities. A major learning goal is understand how sociology is similar to and different from other social sciences and what is distinctive about sociology as a field of study. Using the current religious, social, and political conditions of Muslim countries as a kind of "natural experiment," the author is conducting a multicountry study to examine the three competing theories of Islamic fundamentalism outlined in the preceding section. Today, in the social sciences, the risk persists of fixing an immutable frame for Muslim societies by affirming that ”Islam is The wording should probably be changed from Islam to Muslims, that is to say, those who live Islam. In each cycle, the revivalist puritan impulse would in the end yield to the contrary social requirements (Gellner 1994). The enemy is ephemeral global conspiracies. Kepel, G. & Richard, Y. modern world the sociology of islam provides an accessible introduction to this emerging field of inquiry teaching and debate the study is located at the crucial intersection between a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and the humanities it discusses the long term dynamics of islam as both a religion and as a social political and Islamic Values in the United States. London: Barnes and Noble. The basic sociological principles he enunciates are as follows: He then applied these principles to the analysis of Muslim societies (Khaldun 1992, p. 8–9). Sociology 33:1. In analyzing the structures of Islamic societies it is clear how such an event resulted from the demand for change in a social universe – the tribal and clanic world – which claimed to be structured differently from the extant one, and which was crossed by deep tensions and crises. Until the beginning of the twentieth century the interpreting grid of the Islamic phenomenon was based upon the more relevant historical events or changes. However, even his critics agree that Gellner's model of Muslim society is the most ambitious attempt in modern sociology to identify the internal religious dynamics that play a significant and in certain conditions, critical role in determining the political character and socioreligious trajectories of Muslim societies. The civilization of Romania had long outlived the Roman Empire in the West. High Islam is carried by urban scholars recruited largely from the trading bourgeois classes and reflecting the natural tastes and values of urban middle classes. The Javanese social structure was shaped by a centralized state and a productive and industrious peasantry. by Mary Jo Lakeland. London: Routledge. Its adherents include American Muslims, who are predominantly of African origin, and more recent immigrants from all over the Muslim world. Political science and sociology have analyzed all these changes. In his numerous lectures, at the Hussaynia yi Irshad and elsewhere, he pursued the evolution of his distinctive theories on the sociology and history of Islam, some of which are reflected in this book. The validity of Gellner's model of Muslim society has been challenged in the historical and the modern contexts. In Islam, two perceptions of the connection between society and religious identity have developed. Most of the immigrant Muslims come from south Asian and Middle Eastern countries. In this general sense, jihad…, Sociology and Psychoanalysis/Sociopsychoanalysis, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology: Darwinism and Religion, Sociobiology and Evolutionary Psychology: An Overview, Sociology, Voluntaristic Vs. Structuralist, https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sociology-islam, Politics and Religion: Politics and Islam. New York: Harcourt Brace. Apar…, Islam Intellectual and theological debates attempted to ascertain which of them held the truth. London: Athlone Press. Conquest tends to be followed by luxury and softening, which lead to decay and annihilation of the ruling dynasty. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. while the latter group will be referred to as Liberals. The two systems often coexisted in an amiable symbiosis, but a tension remained that would surface from time to time in the form of a puritan revivalist movement to transform folk Islam in the image of high Islam. In R. Fisher, ed., The Metropolis in Modern Life. Ibn Khaldun, an Arab historian and sociologist (1332–1406), is perhaps the most notable theorist of Muslim society. There are four methods of reasoning in the formulation of the law in Sunni Islamism: igma (consent); qiyas (analogy); ray (personal opinion); and igtihad (interpretation), which provides an essentially closed praxis. The aim of these and similar studies has been to identify and understand how certain ideas and cultural elements utilized by Islam derived from preexisting religions or to point to the existence of elements analogous to Islam in other religious traditions in the same general area. (2002) Introduction. —— 1995 The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? The old form of militancy identified enemies. There emerges a need to provide a new basis for social bonds, and religion becomes the most powerful force in holding together a sedentary people. An important strand of historical scholarship has focused on the relationship between Islam and the rise of the modern West. In the prolegomena, among other topics, he probably provided the first modern outline of sociological principles. Department of Sociology, Flinders University of South Australia, Adelaide. Garnier-Flammarion, Paris. In all these studies the traits of contemporary Muslim societies are evident in the relationship between reality and change. Beinin, J., and J. Stork, eds. Pirenne demonstrated that these two events, which are central to the rise of the modern West, are linked to the rise of Islam and its expansion to the Mediterranean. Such an approach is shared by many Muslim scholars, such as the anthropologist Abdellah Hamoudi, the philosopher Mohammed Arkoun, the political analyst Ghassan Salame, the sociologist Leila Babes, and the historians Abdessalam Cheddadi and Abdellah Laroui. Islamic Quarterley 1:90–103. According to Pirenne, for centuries after the political collapse of the Roman Empire, the economic and social life of western Europe continued to move exclusively to the rhythm of the ancient world. Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris. Over 4,400 mostly highly educated Muslim respondents have been surveyed. Encyclopedia of Sociology. The expansion of Islam in the Mediterranean basin has been interpreted in terms of competition between two patterns of medieval intelligibility, that is to say in terms of the different conceptions of truth, connected to revelation in the two sacred texts (the Koran and the Christian gospels). His work illustrates the modes of incorporation of Islam into already existing and well-developed cultures and shows how those incorporations manifest themselves in the different Islamic traditions that over time come to characterize them. Are there different types of Islamic fundamentalism? Islamic Studies 38(1):45–62. Its main goal is to establish the Sharia (Islamic law) as the explicit, comprehensive, and exclusive legal basis of society (Marty and Appleby 1991, 1992; Beinin and Stork 1997; Esposito 1983). The underlying dynamics that appear to produce this pattern are related to the functional and performance roles of religious institutions (Luhmann 1982; Beyer 1994) and the ability of religious institutions to mobilize public resistance against an authoritarian state that has a deficit of legitimacy in the public mind (Hassan 1999a and 1999b). https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/sociology-islam, "Sociology of Islam The globalization process is creating a social and cultural hiatus that is affecting the nature and organization of Islamic militancy. The word jihad is derived from the Arabic root jahada, meaning "to strive" or "to exert oneself" toward some goal. Deprived of its Mediterranean-wide horizons, civilized western Europe closed in on itself, and the under-Romanized world of northern Gaul and Germany gained prominence. In Indonesia, Islam was a powerful force for cultural diversification and sharply variant and even incompatible worldviews and values. The study is located at the crucial intersection between a variety of disciplines in the social sciences and the humanities. Berkeley: University of California Press. Third World Quarterly, 6(3)0675–686. Ali Shariati (1933-1977) has been called the "Ideologue of the Iranian Revolution." Urban religion is Weberian (textual and puritanical), and rural and tribal religion is Durkheimian. Asian Studies Review 18:129–30. Does this mean increasing support for the militant Islamic movements that are agitating to establish their versions of the Islamic state? In J. Beinin and J. Stork, eds., Political Islam. "Attitudes towards Veiling and Patriarchy in Four Muslim Societies." The cost of their expanding retinue and luxury spending leads to an intensification of the taxation burden on the urban populations and their growing discontent. Review of Religious Research 22(2). Gardell, Mattias 1994 "The Sun of Islam Will Rise in the West: Minister Farrakhan and the Nation of Islam in Latter Days." The complexity of the sociological study of Islam, and particularly of its confrontation with colonial and postcolonial modernity, is nowadays a given for scholars in the broader field. His explanation is that the Muslim conquest implied an extension of its religious and sociocultural pattern. Gellner argues that in the traditional order Islam may be described as a permanent or recurrent, but ever-reversed, Reformation. This configuration was characteristic of lineage or tribal societies. Geertz shows that in the sociocultural and ecological setting of Morocco, the "cultural center" of Islam was developed not in the great cities but in the mobile, aggressive, fluid, and fragmented world of tribes on the periphery. The old-style puritanism prevails in areas where a traditional elite survives but is still fairly close to its origin in an Ibn-Khaldunian swing of the pendulum that brought it to power in a fusion of religious enthusiasm and tribal aggression. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. What needs to be defined today is the Islamic Diaspora and Islamic nationalism, and what are the political procedures structuring Islam into political patterns like those of Morocco or Turkey. In the second period, from 622 to 632, a change in the function of the Koran’s message occurs: Islam appears and develops in Medina, where the first Muslim community is born and where individual religious identity becomes collective. Others affirm that this has to be interpreted as an accent on the Medina Surahs – those that refer to a specificity of Islam, the primacy of the community over the individual, a primacy that is historically defined in Medina and becomes the social archetype of the Muslim world. According to Gellner, "the differentiae of Islam seem institutional rather than ideological. As a result of internal and external pressures, the governments of most Islamic countries have initiated reforms to improve the quality of citizenship accorded to Muslim women. The Mediterranean Roman Empire in the West was replaced by a western Europe dominated by a northern Frankish aristocracy that gave rise to a society in which wealth was restricted to land. Weber argued that rational formal law, autonomous cities, an independent bourgeois class, and political stability were totally absent in Islamic society because of prebendal feudalism and the domination of patrimonial bureaucracy. A number of historical studies have dealt with this issue primarily in terms of the diffusion of Jewish and Christian teaching in pre-Islamic Arabia that laid the foundation for the rise of Islam (Torrey 1933; Bell 1926; Kroeber 1948). The Koranic response to specific conditions is the product of a "coherent philosophy" and "attitude toward life" that Rahman calls "the intellectual tradition" of Islam. —— 1978 Economy and Society. Gellner (1983) describes Weber's notion about the affinity between the bourgeoise style of life and religious sobriety and asceticism as "a piece of Judaeo-Protestant ethnocentricism" (Gellner 1983, p. 78). Berkeley, Calif.: Mizan Press. ." The Arab-Muslim war fleets closed the Mediterranean to shipping in the later seventh century. Paris. Like Gellner, Geertz has made significant contributions to the sociology of Islam through his anthropological studies, in this case of religious life in Indonesia and Morocco. He hypothesized a nexus between Protestant religious beliefs and the development of modern capitalism and used his study of comparative religion to show why modern capitalism could not have emerged in other societies, including Islamic society. Scholars have to face the difficulty of formulating appropriate interpreting grids to describe an ever changing reality. Gellner's Theory of Muslim Society. The Annales school reflects a more complex position, in which religious matters are defined on the basis of material relations. "Sociology of Islam Huntington suggests that Muslim countries have a historical propensity toward violence. It is beyond the scope of this article to provide an exhaustive Khaldun, Ibn 1958 The Muqaddamah. The folk Islamic tradition, through its ecstatic rituals, provides the poor with an escape from their miserable conditions. It discusses the long-term dynamics of Islam as both a religion and as a social, political and cultural force. The trading classes were exposed to Arabian Islam and, because of their greater exposure to the Meccan pilgrimage, cultivated a doctrinal religious tradition. University of California of Los Angeles. Probably the most obvious and explicit example in Cell 2 is the field of “congregational studies,” which is … Over the past fifty years, international labor migration and political upheavals have resulted in increasing Muslim settlement in Europe, Australia, and North America. Some of the reforms have been successful, and, in some countries, such as Iran and Pakistan, the pendulum has swung to more traditionalist views that have gained favor with the current ruling elites. A new approach to these societies was shaped in the field of social and cultural anthropology, where in fact more relevant methodological changes appeared. Sociological laws can be discovered only by gathering many facts and observing circumstances and sequences through historical records and the observation of present events. Its rulers, deprived of the wealth generated by trade, had to reward their followers with grants of land, and thus feudalism was born. Islam was instrumental in introducing wide-ranging legal-religious enactments to improve the status and position of women in Arabian society and protect them from male excesses. This acknowledgement contrasts sharply with crass politicizations of Islam in public and media discourse. Benkheira, M. H. (1997) L’Amour de la Loi. The domination and hegemony of the West, he claims, will force an alliance between the Confucianist and Islamic civilizations, and that alliance will challenge Western interests, values, and power, resulting in a civilizational clash. For example, the Malikite school is present in the Maghreb region and the Hanbalite school extends over the Middle West area (Mashreq), whereas the Hanbalite and Shafiite schools are in the areas of the so called peripheral Islam (Central Asia, the Balkans, the Indian subcontinent, etc). —— (1988) Islamic Fundamentalism and Modernity. Sociological laws are not a reflection only of biological impulses or physical factors but also of social forces. New York: State University of New York Press. To subscribe to a historical perspective means to reproduce the founding elements of Islam, the categories and the interpretive patterns elaborated by the Prophet, since they are considered sufficient to preserve the social and religious elements of a community. The nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth saw the development of oriental ism. In the Koran, the order of chapters does not follow the chronological sequence of their revelation. Shariati, Ali 1979 On the Sociology of Islam. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. The institute publishes a biannual journal devoted to studies of Muslim minorities in different countries. 1994 Muslim Communities in North America. In fact, in Islam’s historiography, the lack of a history of peoples is evident, since a history of dynasties and power has prevailed. Rugh, Andrea 1984 Reveal and Conceal: Dress in Contemporary Egypt. In Muslim Society (1983) and other writings (Gellner 1969, 1992, 1994), Gellner identifies unvarying features of Muslim societies that make them susceptible to sociological analysis. These laws operate on masses and cannot be influenced significantly by isolated individuals. The new militancy appears to be fueled by a sense of desperation and humiliation caused by globalization and the increasing economic, cultural, technological, and military hegemony of the West. The Muslim presence in west European countries has raised challenges to both Muslim and European traditions. The religion that God set forth for Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and muḤammad proclaimed by the latter in Arabia in the 7th century, which enjoys the…, ʿAbduh, Muḥammad While varying in scope and intensity from country to country, these reforms have been initiated in most Muslim countries. Rustics encounter writing mainly in the form of amulets and manipulative magic. Anderson, J. N. D. 1976 Law Reform in Muslim World. In: Ibn Khaldun, Le Livre des Exemples (Book of Examples). The expansion of Islam historically embraces two phenomena. Other features of the institutional framework arose out of the fact that women were made the principal actors responsible for preserving the sanctity of the family and reproduction. In this way history becomes tradition (Sunna) and creates an individual and collective model for the whole community. Essai sur la normativite en islam (Law’s Sake: Essay on Normativeness in Islam). Engineer, Asghar Ali 1980 The Origins and Development of Islam. This led to strict injunctions on the types of roles they could play in the public sphere. This conceptualization has led to the development and observance of strict dress codes for women, including veiling and seclusion, to prevent them from displaying their bodily charm and beauty (Haeri 1993; Hardacre 1993; Levy 1972). Albin Michel, Paris. Another recent development has been a revival of interest in the "social project" of Islam. Said, E. (1978) Routledge & Kegan Paul, London. Duran, Khalid 1997 "Demographic Characteristics of the American Muslim Community." The prospects for research on Islam and Muslim societies involve more than a shift towards field analyses, starting by singling out groups and segments of society, since collective identity tends today to shift toward individual identity. Hachette, Paris. Minneapolis: Bibliotheca Islamica. Puritanism and scripturalism have become symbols of urban sophistication and modernity. Foreign Affairs 72(4):2–9. It began in sixth-century Arabia and spread rapidly to regions outside the Arabian peninsula. —— 1962a Mohammed at Mecca. Their influence has shaped the analytic approach to historical events, resulting in an increasing focus on the relationship between social and economic factors and historical events. After reviewing the evidence on the separation of state and religion in Islamic history, Lapidus (1996) concludes that the history of the Muslim world reveals two main institutional configurations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. For example, scholars underline the deep fracture (fitna) afflicting contemporary Islam, dividing those who embrace a close relation between Islam and political order, and those who embrace a change of Islam in private life. 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